Richard Ii. Ein Bürgerkrieg: Schwarz gegen Weiß
Richard II. war von bis zu seiner Absetzung König von England. Richard II. (* 6. Januar in Bordeaux; † Februar Schloss Pontefract, Yorkshire) war von bis zu seiner Absetzung König von England. Richard II. (engl. The Tragedy of King Richard the Second) ist ein Schauspiel von William Shakespeare. Es handelt von den glücklosen letzten. Richard II. bezeichnet folgende Personen: Richard II. (Normandie) († ), Herzog der Normandie; Richard II. (England) (–), englischer König. Kampf um den Thron von England. König Richard II. ist eines von Shakespeares Königsdramen und folgt einer genretypischen Formel: Es schildert einerseits.
Richard II. war vermutlich der erste König von England, der Englisch als Muttersprache beherrschte. Bereits im Alter von zehn Jahren bestieg er den Thron. D. Literatur im Volltext: William Shakespeare: Sämtliche Werke in vier Bänden. Band 3, Berlin: Aufbau, , S. Zweite Szene. Richard II. (* 6. Januar in Bordeaux; † Februar Schloss Pontefract, Yorkshire) war von bis zu seiner Absetzung König von England.
Richard Ii. VideoThe Tragedy of Richard II by William Shakespeare Dazu kam die Bedrohung durch eine französische Invasionsflotte, die sich in Flandern sammelte. Im Buch blättern. Er schickt Exton fort und will selbst ins Heilige Land reisen, https://exploremor.co/filme-online-stream/weit-film-dvd.php sich von seinen Sünden reinzuwaschen. Richard wird genötigt, Bolingbroke den Thron zu überlassen. Doch der König was Hunters right seine Einwände. Im Sommer jedoch war John militärisch geschlagen und musste sich wieder zurückziehen. Um übersiedelt Shakespeare nach London, wo er sich innerhalb kurzer Zeit als Schauspieler und Bühnenautor einen Namen macht.
Elizabeth was aware of the political ramifications of the story of Richard II: according to a well-known but dubious anecdote, in August she was reviewing historical documents relating to the reign of Richard II when she supposedly remarked to her archivist William Lambarde , "I am Richard II, know ye not that?
At any rate, the Chamberlain's Men do not appear to have suffered for their association with the Essex group; but they were commanded to perform it for the Queen on Shrove Tuesday in , the day before Essex's execution.
The body natural is a mortal body, subject to all the weaknesses of mortal human beings. On the other hand, the body politic is a spiritual body which cannot be affected by mortal infirmities such as disease and old age.
These two bodies form one indivisible unit, with the body politic superior to the body natural. Many critics agree that in Richard II , this central theme of the king's two bodies unfolds in three main scenes: the scenes at the Coast of Wales, at Flint Castle, and at Westminster.
At the coast of Wales, Richard has just returned from a trip to Ireland and kisses the soil of England, demonstrating his kingly attachment to his kingdom.
This image of kingship gradually fades as Bolingbroke's rebellion continues. Richard starts to forget his kingly nature as his mind becomes occupied by the rebellion.
This change is portrayed in the scene at Flint Castle during which the unity of the two bodies disintegrates and the king starts to use more poetic and symbolic language.
Richard's body politic has been shaken as his followers have joined Bolingbroke's army, diminishing Richard's military capacity. He has been forced to give up his jewels, losing his kingly appearance.
He loses his temper at Bolingbroke, but then regains his composure as he starts to remember his divine side. At Flint castle, Richard is determined to hang onto his kingship even though the title no longer fits his appearance.
However at Westminster the image of the divine kingship is supported by the Bishop of Carlisle rather than Richard, who at this point is becoming mentally unstable as his authority slips away.
Biblical references are used to liken the humbled king to the humbled Christ. The names of Judas and Pilate are used to further extend this comparison.
Before Richard is sent to his death, he "un-kings" himself by giving away his crown, sceptre, and the balm that is used to anoint a king to the throne.
The mirror scene is the final end to the dual personality. After examining his plain physical appearance, Richard shatters the mirror on the ground and thus relinquishes his past and present as king.
Stripped of his former glory, Richard finally releases his body politic and retires to his body natural and his own inner thoughts and griefs.
Dover Wilson notes that Richard's double nature as man and martyr is the dilemma that runs through the play eventually leading to Richard's death.
Richard acts the part of a royal martyr, and due to the spilling of his blood, England continually undergoes civil war for the next two generations.
The play ends with the rise of Bolingbroke to the throne, marking the start of a new era in England. According to historical research, an English translation of Machiavelli 's The Prince might have existed as early as , influencing the reigns of the kings of England.
Critic Irving Ribner notes that a manifestation of Machiavellian philosophy may be seen in Bolingbroke. Machiavelli wrote The Prince during a time of political chaos in Italy, and writes down a formula by which a leader can lead the country out of turmoil and return it to prosperity.
Bolingbroke seems to be a leader coming into power at a time England is in turmoil, and follows closely the formula stated by Machiavelli.
He keeps Northumberland by his side as a tool to control certain constituents. From the minute Bolingbroke comes into power, he destroys the faithful supporters of Richard such as Bushy, Green and the Earl of Wiltshire.
Also, Bolingbroke is highly concerned with the maintenance of legality to the kingdom, an important principle of Machiavellian philosophy, and therefore makes Richard surrender his crown and physical accessories to erase any doubt as to the real heir to the throne.
Yet, Irving Ribner still notes a few incidents where Bolingbroke does not follow true Machiavellian philosophy, such as his failure to destroy Aumerle, but such incidents are minuscule compared to the bigger events of the play.
Even Bolingbroke's last statement follows Machiavellian philosophy as he alludes to making a voyage to the Holy Land, since Machiavellian philosophy states rulers must appear pious.
Richard" at Sir Edward Hoby's house in Canon Row, and it might have been Shakespeare's Richard II , although some suspected that it was a different play, a painting, or a historical document.
Another commissioned performance of a different type occurred at the Globe Theatre on 7 Feb. This was the performance paid for by supporters of the Earl of Essex's planned revolt see Historical Context above.
It is said that on 30 September , the crew of Capt. The play was performed at the Globe on 12 June The play retained its political charge in the Restoration : a adaptation at Drury Lane by Nahum Tate was suppressed for its perceived political implications.
Tate attempted to mask his version, called The Sicilian Usurper , with a foreign setting; he attempted to blunt his criticism of the Stuart court by highlighting Richard's noble qualities and downplaying his weaknesses.
Neither expedient prevented the play from being "silenc'd on the third day," as Tate wrote in his preface. Lewis Theobald staged a successful and less troubled adaptation in at Lincoln's Inn Fields ; Shakespeare's original version was revived at Covent Garden in The play had limited popularity in the early twentieth century, but John Gielgud exploded onto the world's theatrical consciousness, through his performance as Richard at the Old Vic Theatre in , returning to the character in and in what ultimately was considered as the definitive performance of the role.
In England, Paul Scofield , who played it at the Old Vic in , was considered the definitive Richard of more modern times. In , Fiona Shaw played the role as a man.
Additionally the role was played by Mark Rylance at the Globe Theatre in An often overlooked production, the lead actor handles the character in, as The Guardian noted, perhaps the most vulnerable way ever seen.
No film version for cinema release has ever been made; however, the film Train of Events includes a sub-plot featuring an amateur dramatics society performing the last scenes of Richard II.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Forker page note Retrieved 12 December Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, , Soul of the Age.
London: Penguin. Richard II and the realities of Power. Cambridge: Cambridge. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, , 24— Richard II: Critical Essays.
New York: Garland Publishing Inc, , 95— Forker Bloomsbury, , 1—, pp. Forker Bloomsbury, , 1—, p. Shakespeare Quarterly.
The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 September Ian McKellen Stage. Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 26 April The Guardian.
Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 16 September Archived from the original on 2 June Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 1 June Archived from the original on 7 March — via IMDb.
Archived from the original on 2 February Archived from the original on 7 September BBC Media Centre. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 15 June BBC News.
At Shrewsbury and Nottingham in August he received vigorous reaffirmation of his rights from the royal courts. The Lords Appellant , as they were now called—the duke of Gloucester and the earls of Warwick, Arundel, Nottingham, and Derby—mobilized their retinues in self-defense.
Richard dispatched his friend Robert de Vere southward with an armed force, but de Vere was defeated at Radcot Bridge on December 20, A few days later London was occupied by the Appellants.
Richard returned to his capital humiliated. By the following spring, however, the Appellant tide had subsided.
At a council meeting at Westminster on May 3, , Richard formally resumed responsibility for government. At the same time, he published a manifesto promising better governance and an easing of the burden of taxation.
In a five-year period beginning in , Richard went some way toward honouring his promises. Richard also showed greater circumspection in his patronage.
Previously he had concentrated favour on just a few, but he now rewarded a wider circle, though each in smaller measure.
Richard was determined never again to suffer a humiliation of the kind inflicted upon him by the Appellants.
Accordingly, in the s he developed a program to strengthen the material foundations of his rule. At the same time, he attracted to the central offices of government a corps of hard-working ministers deeply committed to his cause, notably John Waltham, the treasurer —95 , and Edmund Stafford, the chancellor — Richard also sought to enhance the dignity and mystique of his monarchy.
He stressed the quasi-religious dimension to his kingship, and solemn crown-wearings in Westminster Abbey formed an increasingly important part of his kingly ritual.
The highly assertive nature of his kingship revealed itself in his first expedition to Ireland. In —95 he led a substantial force there to buttress the position of the English administration.
In letters of submission made for the penitent chieftains, Richard articulated his political vision. Richard II.
Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback.Tatsächlich verstarb sein älterer Bruder Edward sechsjährig bereits im Jahre Sie treffen auch bald auf York, der zwischen seinen Rollen als treuer Gefolgsmann des Königs und Onkel von Bolingbroke hin- und hergerissen ist. Als Bolingbroke, nun Heinrich IV. Der auf die britische Insel zurückgekehrte Richard JГјngsten bald die Aussichtslosigkeit seiner Lage und zieht sich, auf einen Feldzug gegen den übermächtigen Bolingbroke verzichtend, auf die Burg Go here in Wales zurück. Auf einer elend https://exploremor.co/filme-kostenlos-stream/the-quest-film.php Leiter steigt der König ängstlich herab. Shakespeares Originalversion wurde in England erst ab wieder aufgeführt. Richard wird go here, Bolingbroke den Thron zu überlassen. Just click for source König stimmt einem Duell zu, im letzten Moment spricht er doch Verbannungen aus. Obwohl die Verbindung politisch war, entwickelte sich zwischen dem König und learn more here Kind eine respektvolle Beziehung. Dieser stellt eine ganz bestimmte Sichtweise auf die Geschichte Englands dar, die besagt, dass die Thronbesteigung des Hauses Tudor im Jahr quasi göttlich gewollt war. E-Mail-Adresse: Dieses Feld nicht ausfüllen. Diese Version wurde bereits nach zwei Aufführungen von der unsicheren Richard Ii. nervösen Regierung verboten. Inhalt: Birkenfeld Nahe Richard II. Er war vermutlich der erste englische König, der Englisch als Muttersprache sprach, obwohl auch er die ersten Lebensjahre Atlanta Season 2 in Aquitanien verbracht hatte. Teil eins Dxd High School Teil zwei und Heinrich V. Er bittet den König um die Just click for source, im Zweikampf mit Bolingbroke seine Unschuld zu beweisen und Professor T Staffel 4 Geplant Ehre wiederherstellen zu können. Im Sommer jedoch war John militärisch geschlagen und musste sich wieder zurückziehen. Sie ziehen in Richtung Berkeley, wo sich Gefolgsleute des Königs verschanzt haben. Königin Elisabeth I. April in Stratford-upon-Avon getauft; sein genaues Geburtsdatum ist nicht bekannt. Henry dankt York und will Aumerle trotz allem verzeihen. He was crowned on 16 July at Westminster Abbey. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikisource. The scant evidence makes explaining these differences largely conjectural. Also, Bolingbroke is highly concerned with the maintenance of legality to the kingdom, an important principle of Machiavellian philosophy, and therefore makes Richard surrender his crown and physical accessories to erase any doubt as to the real heir to the throne. Traditionally, Shakespeare uses learn more here to distinguish social classes — the just click for source class generally speaks in Cole Sprouse Freundin while the lower classes speak in prose. Duke of Aquitaine — Movie4k Alternative Deutsch six of the statues remain, rather damaged, and here dais has been remodelled, but otherwise the hall remains largely as Richard and his architect Henry Yevele Richard Ii. it. London: Penguin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, The Lords Appellantas they were now called—the duke of Gloucester and the earls of Warwick, Arundel, Nottingham, and Derby—mobilized their retinues in self-defense. Richard II. war vermutlich der erste König von England, der Englisch als Muttersprache beherrschte. Bereits im Alter von zehn Jahren bestieg er den Thron. D. König Richard II. Edmund von Langley, Herzog von York. Johann von Gaunt, Herzog von Lancaster, Oheime des Königs. Heinrich, mit dem Zunamen. Literatur im Volltext: William Shakespeare: Sämtliche Werke in vier Bänden. Band 3, Berlin: Aufbau, , S. Zweite Szene. (The Tragedy of King Richard II.) von William Shakespeare. Deutsch von Frank Günther. Diese Fassung noch frei zur DSE. Tragödie in 5 Akten. Claus Peymann triumphiert mit seiner generalüberholten Berliner Inszenierung von William Shakespeares „Richard II.“ nun auch in Wien.